Present Perfect

 Siluetsenja.com, 29/01/2022   11:00 am

Pict By.  Abadikini

We extend our gratitude for the presence of Allah SWT, because over grace and gifts we are given the opportunity to complete the task of this paper, our writers can finish up on time. Like to thank the various people who have helped in the preparation the task of this paper.This task of this paper discusses the Present Perfect Tense

The author realizes that the writing task of this paper there are still many shortcomings, therefore the authors are looking forward to constructive criticism and suggestions. And hopefully with the completion task of this paper can be useful for the reader.

A.  Definition of Present Perfect

An aspect of the verb expressing an action that began in the past and which has recently been completed or continues into the present. Also known as the present perfective. The present perfect is formed by combining has or have with a past participle (usually a verb ending in -d, -ed, or -n).

Sebuah aspek dari kata kerja yang menyatakan suatu tindakan yang dimulai di masa lalu dan yang baru-baru ini telah selesai atau berlanjut ke masa kini. Juga dikenal sebagai perfektif. Present perfect dibentuk dengan menggabungkan has atau have dengan past participle (biasanya kata kerja berakhiran-d,-ed, atau-n).

B. Present Perfect Tense  

The perfect tenses are formed by using the uxiliary verb to have and adding the past participle of the main verb. Thus, the present perfect is formed by taking the present tense of to has or have) and adding the past participle of the main verb.

Perfect tenses dibentuk dengan menggunakan kata kerja bantu untuk have dan menambahkan past participle dari kata kerja utama. Dengan demikian, present perfect dibentuk dengan mengambil present tense dari has atau have dan menambahkan past participle dari kata kerja utama.

a. The uses are:

·      To indicate completed action in the immediate past (just)

Untuk menunjukann tindakan-tindakan yang di selesaikan di masa lampau dengan segara (baru saja)

Ex: He has just gone out

       Dia baru saja pergi

·      To express past action whoose time is not given and not definite

Untuk mengungapkan tindakan lampau yang waktunya di berikan dan tidak pasti

Ex: Have you read the book?                                        

Sudahkah kamu membaca buku itu?

·      To describe past events when we think more of their effect in the present than of the action itself

Untuk menggambarkan kejadian-kejadian  kita lebih memikirkan efeknya di masa sekarang dari pada tindakan itu sendiri

Ex: I have finished my work (now I am free)             

Saya sudah menyelesaikan tugas saya (sekarang saya bebas)

·      To denote an action beginning at some time in the continuing up to the present moment (often with since- and for- pharse)

Untuk menunjukan sebuah tinndakan yang di mmulai ada waktu tertentu dan berlangsung sampai saat sekarang ini (sering di tandai dengan sejak dan selama pharse

Ex: I have known him for long time

Saya sudah mengetahuinya selama/dalam watu yang lama

I

Have

Have not

Haven’t

 

 

 

Past Participle/

Verb 3

You

We

They

He

She

It

Has

Has not

Hasn’t

           

Subject + have/has + Past Participle/V3

 
Positive Sentence

 

Example:

·           They have gone home

 Mereka sudah pulang

They (subject) +  have (Positive) + gone (Verb3 : go; went; gone : Pergi)

 

Subject + have/has + not+ Past Participle/V3

 
Negative Sentence

 

                     Example:

·           You haven’t prepared the paper

Anda belum menyiapkan kertas

You  (subject) +  haven’t (Negative) +  Prepared (Verb3: prepare; prepared; prepared : Menyiapkan)

Have/Has + subject+ Past Participle/V3

 
Interrogative Sentence

                                                                                                      


Example:

·           Have You heard this before?

Sudahkah anda mendengar hal ini sebelumnya?

Have + You (subject)+ Heard (V3: c                                        

b. Active Passive Voice In Present Perfect Tense

S + has/have + V3 + O

 

 
Active Voice

 

 

                        Example:

·           She has written a homework

She (subject) + has + written (V3 : Write; wrote; written: Menulis) + a homework (Object)

·           Chaerul have directed the movie

Chaerul (Subject) + Have + directed; (V3: direct; directed; directed: memimpin) + the movie (Object)

Passive Voice

S + have/has + been + V3 + by +Object

=

 
                                                                                            

 

 

Example:

·           A homework has been written by her.

A homework (Subject) + have +been + written (V3) + by + her (Object)

·           The movie have been directed by Chaerul

The movie (subject) + have +been + direct (V3) + by + Chaerul (Object

B. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The present continuous tense is used to show something that happen in the past and continued  up until to the present now.

Present continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa lalu dan terus sampai sekarang.

a. Time expressions/ time signal

for, since, all afternoon, all day, the whole day                                                                                    selama, sejak, sepanjang siang hari, sepanjang hari, sehari penuh.

I

 

Have

Have not/

Haven’t

 

 

 

Been

 

 

 

Past Participle/

Verb 1+ing

You

We

They

He

She

It

Has

Has not

Hasn’t

Subject + have/has + been + V-ing

 
Positive Sentence

 

Example:

·           Dinda has been studying English for over four years

Dinda masih belajar bahasa Inggris selama lebih dari empat tahun

Dinda (subject) +  have (Positive) + been + Studying (V.ing : Study+ing:  Pergi) + English (Object)

Subject + has/have + not + been + V-ing + Object

 
Negative Sentence

 



Example:

·           Imas has not been practicing her english lately

Imas belum melatih kemampuan berbahasa Inggrisnya akhir-akhir ini

Imas (subject) +  have  not  (Negative) + been + Practicing (V.ing : Practice+ing: melatih ) + English (Object)

Have/Has + subject+ been + V-ing

 
Interrogative Sentence

                   

Example:           

·           Have you been exercising lately?

Apakah baru-baru ini kamu berolahraga?

Have + you (Subject) +been +exercising (V.ing: exercise + ing: olahraga)

b.  Aktiv Passive Voice In Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Active Voice


 

 S + has/have + been +V-ing + O
 

 

 


Example:

·           Parmin has been killing a snake

 

Parmin (subject) + has + been + Killing (V-ing : Kill+ing: membunuh) + a snake (Object)

·           Shinta have been helping the old man

 

Shinta (Subject) + have + been + helping (V-ing: help+ing: menolong) the old man (Object)

Passive Voice


 

 S + has/have + been + being + V+ by+ O
 

 


Example:

·           A snake has been being killed by Parmin

 

A snake (Subject) + has + been + Killed (V3: kill; killed; killed: Membunuh) + by + Parmin (Object)

·           The old man have been being helped by Shinta

 

The old man (Subject) + have + been + being + helped (V3: help; helped;helped: Membantu) + by + Sinta (Object)

Conclution

Present Perfect

An aspect of the verb expressing an action that began in the past and which has recently been completed or continues into the present.

There are two kind Present Perfect

a. Present Perfect Tense

The perfect tenses are formed by using the auxiliary verb to have and adding the past participle of the main verb.

b. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The present continuous tense is used to show something that happen in the past and continued  up until to the present now.

 

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REFERENCES

Prastowo Panca, 10 Hari Aja Langsung Sakti Berbahasa Inggris, Jogjakarta: Diva Press.2014

Yonathan Lindya, English Grammar, 2014

http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/prespertense.htm

http://www.grammar.com/present-perfect-tense/

 

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